How To Make Dog’s Breath Smell Better

Anyone who owns a dog knows that it’s impossible not to be hugging them and letting them lick you all the time. It’s the way they show affection, and it’s healthy to feel loved by your pets. But sometimes dogs have a breath problem, and that is also something dog owners know too well.

As much as you love your dog, when they have bad breath it can be disgusting when they show you their affection, and it’s a sad experience. So if your dog is suffering from a bad case of halitosis, here’s how to make dog’s breath smell better.

Determine The Cause Of Your Dog’s Bad Breath

To solve any problem, not only this one, it’s only logical that the cause must be defined first. There are a number of reasons why a dog’s breath smells bad, and most of the time it’s something harmless and easily fixed. But sometimes bad breath on a dog can be the sign of something more serious, so finding out why they have bad breath could be of great help.

Some of the most innocent causes of halitosis in dogs are periodontal, gum or oral disease, and these are also pretty common. Other causes that are less common but more complicated are digestive or metabolic diseases, and they have to be taken more seriously.

Bad breath can also be present without your dog suffering from any illness, and there’s just an overgrowth of bacteria in its mouth. Teething and drinking from the toilet are also innocent causes of bad breath on a dog. Either way, a trip to the veterinarian is always necessary when there’s any change in a dog, especially bad breath.

How To Make Your Dog’s Breath Smell Better At Home

Curing the disease: If the cause of the bad smell is a subjacent disease, taking care of it is the main priority. Always discard an illness first before thinking about any other cause. Follow the veterinarian’s instructions carefully and have your dog be checked regularly by them.

Brushing its teeth: Sometimes a dog needs the same treatment as a human, and a good brush it’s the solution. Accumulation of bacteria in the mouth is a very common cause of bad breath in dogs. Learn more about brushing dog’s teeth in this video:

Giving them something to chew on: Chewing on something helps dogs polish their pearly whites, getting rid of tartar buildup, a common source of bad breath.

Breath spray: There is a variety of dog breath spray son the market that can help with a little bit of a bad breath. But owners have to make sure that the spray is safe to use, and we advise getting a green light from your veterinarian.

Fewer carbohydrates: Carbohydrates, especially sugars, are a source of power for bacteria to proliferate in the mouth and the entire digestive tract. Lowering the carbs on your dog’s diet can help wonders with bad breath (and also help with weight control, along with exercise).

Close the toilet lid: Drinking from the toilet is not only unhealthy for them but is also another common cause of bad breath in dogs. Keeping the lid down at all times, and placing something on top of it so that the dog can’t open the lid, can help with their breath too.

These are just some quick tips on how you can improve or prevent your dog’s breath from smelling, but we want to reiterate that if your dog’s breath is smelling bad you need to go to a veterinarian. Discard every possible disease first, as sometimes bad breath is indicative of some severe underlying issue.

How Much Exercise Does Your Puppy Need? Know The Facts!

Bringing a new puppy home could be a very exciting and fulfilling experience. And while you are trying to get the puppy adjusted to its new life in your home, you are no doubt making sure you are giving it everything it needs. Food, vaccinations, love, training and supervision, the works. A new puppy needs all the attention you can give it, more so during its initial days in the new place. So, while you go around feeding it and telling it you love it, have you considered an exercise routine for your puppy? Really, how much exercise does a puppy need? A puppy, just like a child, is a powerhouse of energy. So, it is important to dissipate the energy in constructive activities.

How does exercise help your puppy?

  • Daily exercise is good for your puppy’s physical as well as mental health. Many owners discover that some form of daily exercises reduces behavioral problems such as endless barking, chewing, digging or general signs of bad temper.
  • Puppies are also susceptible to obesity. Regular exercise can ensure that the puppy does not put on inordinate amounts of weight.
  • It helps keep your pet’s muscles strong and supple.
  • It helps your and your family’s bonding with the puppy.
  • It could give your puppy an opportunity to socialize with other puppies or people. This is important for their behavioral progress.
  • It provides a healthy dose of fun and entertainment and avoids frustration and boredom.

How to help your puppy exercise?

Walking is a good exercise for a young pup. Take short walks and walk at a slower pace. In safe, enclosed spaces such as the backyard or a dog park, let the puppy run freely. This way, the pup can regulate its exercise and take a break when it feels tired. Occasionally, you can get the puppy to fetch the ball you throw. But do not over-tire it.

How much exercise does the puppy need?

This is a very subjective question. It would have been so much easier if there would have been an app to guide how much exercise a puppy requires according to its age and breed? And how about a puppy version of a fitness band to track the pet’s activity and see if it’s getting enough exercise? Unfortunately, things don’t work like that. Every puppy is different. There are no written rules. However, you can consider the following factors to arrive at a sensible exercise routine for your puppy.

  1. Size – Don’t be misled by the size, though. A large-sized puppy does not have a higher endurance for exercise as you might think. For example, a rigorous exercise routine for a young Great Dane puppy might not be a good idea.
  2. Tolerance for heat – For example, a Collie might be better suited for outdoor play than say, a bulldog.
  3. Need for mental stimulation – For instance, you can include training sessions in the exercise routine for German Shepherd pups to give them the required stimulation.
  4. Age – When the puppy is too little, too much exercise can be bad for its physical development and health.
  5. Look for cues – If the puppy shows signs of being tired, stop and let it rest.

Apart from the above factors, it is a good idea to speak to your vet about how much exercise your puppy needs. You can also speak to the breeder to get more idea about the specific breed’s need for exercise (here’s more info on the Shar-Pei’s temperament). Or join a breed enthusiast group for support and advice.

Usually five minutes of exercise per month of your puppy’s age, twice a day, is considered an ideal. So, if the pup is four-month old, a twenty-minute walk twice a day should be enough.

Remember that too much exercise can cause developmental issues in puppies and must be avoided.

Care to be taken while exercising the puppy

  • Ensure that the puppy is not getting overheated. Allow it to drink enough water.
  • Make sure the puppy gets sufficient time to take short naps during the day.
  • Before taking the puppy to the dog park, consult the vet to make sure it has had the necessary vaccinations.
  • Set a routine for exercise and make sure you stick to it.
  • Increase the exercise time gradually.

Here’s a fun game you can play with your puppy (he will get a lot of exercise from it):

Owing to the sedentary lifestyle of their owners, more and more dogs are getting overweight today. It is a good idea to get into an exercise routine with your dog, which will help both of you in the long run.

What to Do With Your Pet during a Pending Natural Disaster

If you live in a disaster prone area, each year you are bombarded with warnings to prepare, and with good reason. Living in South Florida, every July we are told to get ready for hurricane season. Sadly, it’s easy to get complacent when a major storm has not come through in many years. The result can be terrible if you are caught unawares. This is important for you as well as your pet!

First of all, do not leave them at home. If you are not staying, why would you leave your pet? Besides the danger, they will be scared with no one to help and comfort them. What if they become trapped or even manage to get out of the house? The dangers they can be exposed to are simply not worth the risk.

If you are familiar with the principals of disaster preparedness for humans, the same applies for your pets. Are you planning on going to a shelter? If so make sure that the shelter accepts pets, not all do so contact them ahead of time to be sure. One option is a boarding kennel; you can contact your veterinarian for a list. Some animal shelters will temporarily shelter a pet during a disaster.

Are you planning to evacuate the area completely? If you are going to a hotel or motel, make sure they allow pets. Do not leaving you pets in the car! That is dangerous as well as cruel to the pet. Also be sure to check with any friends or relatives if you plan to stay with them. It would be horrible to find out they were allergic to your pet after making the trip.

Just like you have a kit ready to go in case of an evacuation, make sure you have one for your pet. This kit should include three to seven days’ worth of canned food, litter, (and a pan, perhaps disposable), paper towels and clean up supplies. Don’t forget medications and anything else to make your pets evacuation healthy. Of course, feeding dishes and chew toys are a must! Copies of medical records in a water proof container are important too.

Plan for the worst possible case; don’t just assume it will be a day or two. Even if the disaster goes by quickly, streets may be impassable and power may not be restored for some time. No one wants to think about it, but you could not have a home to return to.

Make sure your pets have up to date tags, a tag will have the pets name, urgent medical needs, address and your contact information. A microchip is also an excellent idea.

Keep you and you pets safe! You will never regret the amount of preparation you have done if a disaster strikes. On the other hand, could you bear the heartbreak of losing your pet because you failed to plan ahead? No one wants to suffer that loss.

History of Chinese Shar Pei Dog Breed and Description

The Chinese Shar Pei is a large dog that stands vicinity of 11 and 18 crawls in stature. This pooch is renowned for its wrinkled, droopy skin. It has a square profile with a wide and level head. The gag is incredibly full and wide with a right stop. This modern breed’s tongue is blue-dark in shading. The teeth are meeting in a scissor chomp. The eyes are little practically covered up and are almond formed, and they are separate wide. With high sets triangular ears that are little and bent marginally at the tip. With an especially high tail, that is massive at the base, decreasing to a better point.

The Shar-Pei puppy has existed in China for a long time and was claimed by laborer ranchers as a typical utility pooch. The agriculturists lived in the southern regions, which outskirt the South China Sea.

They were dedicated defenders of the agriculturist’s homes and furthermore used to protect the rancher’s animals and, if necessary on an uncommon event, would chase the Wild Boar that tormented the agriculturist’s domesticated animals.

Dai Lek is a town, which is arranged near Canton, in China’s Kwantung Province. Dai Lek was once referred to individuals as a mystery put for card sharks. One of the ‘games’, and I utilize the word ‘sports’ approximately, was putting down wagers on pooch battling. Shar Pei lamentably turned into a most loved because of their manufacture and capacity to strike back because of the wrinkles in their skin, they offered the Shar Pei the adaptability to pivot and battle back, and they additionally made it to a great degree troublesome for another canine to snatch it.

Fortunately for the Shar Pei, the players and individuals who advanced the battles were beginning to utilize, more grounded puppy breeds. These included Mastiffs, Bulldogs and breeds like these. They were battled simply because of their demeanor, the nastier they were, the more they needed them to battle. Because of these canines contending so well, they then crossbred them to deliver considerably nastier pooches. The poor Shar Pei did not rate exceptionally any longer and hence was never again popular, the rearing was relinquished, and the quantities of Shar Pei in presence fell quickly.

As though this was insufficient for the Shar Pei the communists of China managed another blow that about demonstrated deadly to the breed. Amid the 1940’s they upheld staggeringly costly duties on pooches it was just the general population with cash that could bear to keep a canine. The reproducing of mutts was prohibited out and out.

In a bit of destiny a man called Matgo Law from Hong Kong who effectively possessed Shar Pei pooches read an article in a magazine that caught the reality of the Shar Pei predicament in 1971. The breed was incorporated into an element in regards to different breeds. The picture of a Shar Pei had the urgent words composed adjacent to it, ‘This is potentially the last living case of a Shar Pei left in presence’. He started to compose a letter to the editorial manager of the magazine clarifying how he and a kindred Shar Pei fancier needed to help this awesome puppy. He included photos of the little quantities of Shar Pei they had just figured out how to save. His letter finished with a supplication for help from the great individuals of America.

Matgo Law’s letter was distributed in April 1973 in a similar magazine; this one letter started individuals’ enthusiasm for the Shar Pei. Purchasers wished to buy this extraordinary pooch; puppies were sought after. So little by little the Shar Pei reared and the puppies were sold, within a couple of years of them being debilitated by elimination they now had pet hotels set up particularly for them.

There are three sorts of coats: Brush coat, horse coat and the uncommon bear coat, the last one isn’t perceived by the AKC (learn more about the breed standards). This is because of the reality it is maybe a return to the Chow-chow. The uncommon bear coat still, however, makes an incredible pet. The stallion coat inside this breed is unpleasant to the touch and feels thorny. The brush coat is longer haired and is smoother to the touch. The coat on either assortment can grow up to 1 long crawl hues incorporate every strong shading and sables. This dog, as a rule, comes in two varieties of skin folds, one is shrouded in expansive folds of wrinkles even into adulthood, and this is fundamentally the brush coat. The other assortment has skin seems tight on his body with wrinkles more articulated on the face and shrinks; this is more probable with the steed coat.

Dogs Can Become Babies Best Friends Too

Having a dog is like having a child in your house, they are so adorable, loyal, fun and sometimes annoying but we still love them. However when the real baby comes along, as a dog owner it is normal to become very wary of the dog. So before you stock up on baby gear, you need to make sure you family pet is ready for the transition. Regardless of how much the dog is trained or how well mannered they are you will still be worried about how they will react towards your baby. Will they be aggressive or will they enjoy the moment with you? These are the tough questions that run through your mind.

You need not to worry, dogs are very cleaver. When properly introduced to the new bundle of joy they may become ”siblings” and best friends in a short amount of time and you will not have to worry when the dog is around the baby. Here are some cleaver tricks you can adopt in order to ensure you introduce your dog to your baby safely.

Steps to Take

1. Prepare the dog for the baby before bringing the baby home.

Train the dog how to react when the baby comes home instead of surprising the dog with the baby. Teach them the new boundaries that they can’t cross and things they can’t do before the baby comes. A good example is training the dog not to enter the baby’s room or bite on the baby’s toys.

2. Introduce the baby to the dog slowly.

If the dog is not used to having a baby in the house they may become surprised and curious too when they reach home, if this is not properly handled things may get out of hand and the dog may pose some kind of danger to the baby. Introducing the dog to the babies scent before formally physically introducing the two is a good idea, this can be done by allowing the dog to sniff some of the babies clothes or blankets.

3. Play baby noises on videos and on tapes.

As stated above surprising the dog with a new baby is probably not a good idea. Playing baby tapes (like the video below) with their sound’s either crying or playing before the baby comes home will help the dog get used to the babies crying or playing noise instead of surprising them with a noise they are not used to.

 

4. Don’t stop paying attention to the dog.

A dog has feelings too. Try to balance the amount of attention you give to the dog and the baby. Give the dog same amount of attention you used to give it before the baby came along. If you have to reduce the amount of attention due to the needs of the baby you have to do it gradually instead of abruptly reducing the attention. You can also pay attention to both of them while at the same time introducing the two together as you play with both the baby and the dog. Make sure the dog continues to get plenty of exercise.

5. Try introducing the dog to other kids before the baby comes.

Before the baby comes home try as much as possible to introduce the dog to other kids and let them play together. The dog will get used to kids and not grown ups alone, this will make the introduction to your baby much more easier.

6. Read the dogs reaction towards the baby.

Understanding your dog’s reaction towards the baby will help you understand which method to use when introducing the dog to the baby. In case the dog becomes aggressive towards the baby you will have to set up more restrictions and introduce the two slowly, if the dog warms up to the baby it becomes easy to introduce the dog to the baby.

7. Teach the baby how to handle the dog.

When the dog and the baby understand each other their relationship is likely to flourish. Just like dogs, babies too do not know how to handle a dog. Teaching them things to avoid like throwing toys at the dog will go a long way in strengthening their relationship.

8. Reward the dog with treats for behaving and treating the baby well.

Rewarding a dog for good behavior only encourages them to behave better towards the baby, this will make things easier for you.

Conclusion.

As a parent your child’s safety should be your priority, regardless of the dogs reaction towards the baby you should not leave the baby with the dog alone without any form of. supervision. Babies are very fragile and completely trusting the dog with your baby should not be an option.

Where is the Line Drawn Between Humans and Pets?

You see it especially with hollywood. They have started the trend by dressing their pooches in clothing that resembles their own or that of an offspring they might have. Their pets have sweaters with matching hats and booties. They are carried in fashionable carrying cases or pocketbooks that allow them to be seen, adored and traveled. They are bought collars that cost more than what most pay for their mortgages and groomed better than a lot of people groom themselves.

Just recently Mariah Carey was shot with one of her animal children wearing a full ensemble that included a coat with a fur trimmed hood. I’m sure the trim was made of the finest fake fur stuff out there. The dog looked as if it were in absolute heaven from the great care and life it was receiving. He must have been a peasant in his last life. It doesn’t leave much room to wonder why there would be no room for a man or other children in the same picture.

On the Hogan reality show there was a recent episode I watched where Hogan’s wife Linda decided she would add a nice little chimp to her already too many dogs to count collection. Of course chimps are about as human as you can get. It had to wear a diaper, be fed with a “ba-ba”, entertained and loved just as a human baby would be. It had to be separated from the dogs in order for it to not suffer from any anxiety, confusion or upset. All of the dogs were put outside while the nice new chimp got to enjoy all of the love, affection and roaming of the mansion. In the end, the need for “a baby in the house” was outweighed by the lack of time, effort and energy that needed to be given for it’s care. There were many tears, but in the end Linda’s “momma days” were ultimately over.

There are luxury pet resorts and hotels with pampering poochy service. They are treated to five star doggie meals and exercise regimens. You can take your loved one to get their picture made or even maybe have them stuffed in order to keep them by your fireplace forever. The list of things to do with and for your child, excuse me…pet, are endless when you have too much time or money on your hands. I will say however they are definitely less expensive than an actual human. They still don’t take the same time, attention and care. The don’t talk back and are always happy to see you, even if you didn’t take them on trips to Disneyland or you and their daddy split. I suppose if more people got a furry creature in order to fulfill their need to love and to be loved rather than having a hairless one, it would decrease the population, as much need for lawyers or extra bedrooms.

Miniature Shar-Pei Glossory

Abdomen: The portion of the dog’s body between the chest and the hindquarters.

Amyloidosis: A genetic disease, often resulting in renal (kidney) failure.

Angulation: The angles formed by a meeting of the bones; mainly the shoulder, upper arm, stifle, and hock.

Balanced: A consistent whole; symmetrical, typically proportioned as a whole or as regards its separate parts; i.e., balance of head, balance of body, or balance of head and body.

Bear Coat: A coat length in excess of one inch.

Bench Show: A dog show at which the dogs competing for prizes are required to remain during the entire show.

Best of Breed (BOB): A dog-show award to the dog adjudged best of all dogs/bitches present during a show. In the MSPCA Top Ten, this means the dog/bitch who received the most points during the showing season.

Best of Winners (BOW): A dog-show award to the dog adjudged best between the Winners Dog and Winners Bitch.

Best Opposite Sex (BOS): A dog-show award to the dog of the opposite sex of the BOB.

Best Opposite Sex Puppy (BOSP): A dog-show award to the puppy of the opposite sex of Best Puppy.

Best Puppy (BP): A dog-show award to a puppy adjudged best of all puppies present during a show.

Bitch: A female dog.

Bite: The relative position of the upper and lower teeth when the mouth is closed. The MSPCA standard requires a scissors bite.

Body: The anatomical section between the forequarters and the hindquarters.

Body Length: Distance from the point of the should to the rearmost projection of the upper thigh (point of the buttocks).

Bone: The relative size (girth) of a dog’s leg bones. Substance.

Brisket: The forepart of the body below the chest, between the forelegs, closest to the ribs.

Brood Bitch: A female used for breeding.

Brush Coat: Not to exceed one inch in length.

Canines: The two upper and two lower sharp-pointed teeth next to the incisors. Fangs.

Carpals: Bones of the pastern joints.

Castrate: To remove the testicles of the male dog.

Champion (CH): A prefix used with the name of a dog that has been recorded a Champion by the MSPCA as a result of defeating a specified number of dogs in specified competition at a series of MSPCA approved dog shows.

Choke Collar: A leather or chain collar fitted to the dog’s neck in suck a manner that the degree of tension exerted by the and tightens or loosens it.

Close-Coupled: Comparatively short from withers to hipbones.

Coat: The dog’s hair covering.

Cobby: Short-bodied, compact.

Compact: Term used to describe the firmly joined union of various body parts.

Conformation: The form and structure, make and shape; arrangement of the parts in conformance with breed-standard demands.

Congenital: An inherited feature present at birth.

Cow-Hocked: When the hocks turn toward each other.

Croup: The back part of the back, above the hind legs.

Cryptorchid: The adult whose testicles are abnormally retained in the abdominal cavity. Bilateral cryptorchidism involves both sides, that is, neither testicle has descended into the scrotum. Unilateral cryptorchidism involves one side only; that is, one testicle is retained or hidden, and one descended.

Dam: The female parent.

Dewclaw: An extra claw or functionless digit on the inside of the leg, a rudimentary fifth toe.

Dewlap: Loose, pendulous skin under the throat.

Dilute: A dog without any black pigment.

Disqualification: A decision made by a judge or by a bench show committee following a determination that a dog has a condition that makes it ineligible for any further completion under the dog show rules or under the standard for it’s breed.

Dog: A male dog; also used collectively to designate both male and female.

Dog Show: A competitive exhibition for dogs at which the dogs are judged in accordance with an established standard of perfection.

Dog Show, Conformation: An event held under MSPCA/AKC rules at which championship points are awarded.

Down in Pastern: Weak or faulty pastern (metacarpus) set at a pronounced angle from the vertical.

Drive: A solid thrusting of the hindquarters, denoting sound locomotion.

East-West Front: Incorrectly positioned pasterns that cause the feet to turn outwards, usually associated with a narrow front.

Elbows Out: Turning out or off from the body; not held close.

Expression: The general appearance of all features of the head as viewed from the front and as typical of the breed.

Femur: Thigh bone, extends from hip to stifle.

Fibula: The outer and smaller of the two bones of the lower thigh.

Fiddle Front: Forelegs out at elbows, pasterns close, and feet turned out.

Flank: The side of the body between the last rib and the hip.

Flews: Upper lips pendulous, particularly at their inner corners

Foreface: The front part of the head, before the eyes. Muzzle.

Forequarters: The combined front assembly from its uppermost component, the shoulder blade, down to the feet.

Front: The forepart of the body as viewed head on; i.e., forelegs, chest, brisket, and shoulder line.

Gait: The pattern of footsteps at various rates of speed, each pattern distinguished by a particular rhythm and footfall.

Hackles: Hair on neck and back raised involuntarily in fright or anger.

Handler: A person who handles a dog in the show ring.

Haw: A third eyelid or membrane in the inside corner of the eye.

Heat: Seasonal period of the female. Estrus.

Height: Vertical measurement from the withers to the ground; referred to usually as shoulder height.

Hindquarters: Rear assembly of dog (pelvis, thighs, hocks and paws).

Hock: The tarsus or collection of bones of the hind leg forming the joint between the second thigh and the metatarsus; the dog’s true heel.

Hocks Well Let Down: Hock joints close to the ground.

Horse Coat: A harsh coat not to exceeding Ľ inch in length.

Inbreeding: The mating of closely related dogs of the same breed.

Incisors: The six upper and six lower front teeth between the canines. Their point of contact forms the “bite”.

Iris: The colored membrane surrounding the pupil of the eye.

Judge: The arbiter in the dog show ring.

Knee Joint: Stifle joint.

Layback: The angle of the shoulder blade as compared with the vertical.

Lead: A strap, cord, or chain attached to the collar or harness for the purpose of restraining or leading the dog. Leash.

Level Gait: Dog moves without rise or fall of withers.

Line Breeding: The mating of related dogs of the same breed, within the line or family, to a common ancestor, as, for example, a dog to his granddam or a bitch to her grandsire.

Litter: A puppy or puppies of one whelping.

Loin: Region of the body on either side of the vertebral column between the last ribs and the hindquarters.

Mask: Dark shading on the foreface.

Mate: To breed a dog and bitch.

Metatarsus: Rear pastern.

Monorchid: A unilateral cryptorchid.

Moving Straight: Term descriptive of balance gaiting in which angle of inclination begins at the shoulder, or hip joint, and limbs remain relatively straight from these points to the pad of the feet, even as the legs flex or extend in reaching or thrusting.

Muzzle: The head in front of the eyes – nasal bone, nostrils, and jaws. Foreface.

Occiput: Upper, back point of the skull.

Open Class: A class at dog shows in which all dogs of a breed may compete.

Outcrossing: The mating of unrelated individuals of the same breed.

Overreaching: Fault in the trot caused by more angulation and drive from behind than in front, so that the rear feet are forced to step in one side of the forefeet to avoid interfering or clipping.

Pads: Tough, shock-absorbing projections on the underside of the feet. Soles.

Parent Club: National club for the breed.

Pastern: Commonly recognized as the region of the foreleg between the carpus or wrist and the digits.

Pedigree: The written record of a dog’s descent of three generations or more.

Prick Ear: Carried erect.

Professional Handler: A person who shows dogs for a fee

Puppy: A dog under twelve months of age.

Pure-Bred: A dog whose sire and dam belong to the same breed, and are themselves of unmixed descent since recognition of the breed.

Reach of Front: Length of forward stride taken by forelegs without wasted or excessive motion.

Register: To record a dog’s breeding particulars.

Reserve Winners Bitch: The runner up to Winners Bitch

Reserve Winners Dog: The runner up to Winners Dog

Roach Back: A convex curvature of the back toward the loin.

Sable: A lacing of black hairs over a lighter ground color.

Scissors Bite: A bite in which the outer side of the lower incisors touches the inner side of the upper incisors.

Septum: The line extending vertically between the nostrils.

Sire: The male parent.

Soundness: The state of mental and physical health when all organs and faculties are complete and functioning normally, each in its rightful relation to the other.

Spay: To perform a surgical operation on the bitch’s reproductive organs to prevent conception.

Splayfoot: A flat foot with toes spreading. Open foot, open-toes.

Square Body: A dog whose measurements from withers to the ground equals that from point of shoulder to the rearmost projection of the upper thigh.

Stance: Manner of standing.

Standard: A description of the ideal dog of a breed, to serve as a word pattern by which dogs are judged at shows.

Stifle: The joint of the hind leg between the thigh and the second thigh. The dog’s knee.

Stop: The step up from muzzle to skull; indentation between the eyes where the nasal bone and skull meet.

Straight Hocked: Lacking appreciable angulation at the hock joints. Straight behind.

Straight In Pastern: Little or no bend between joint and foot.

Stud Book: A record of the breeding particulars of dogs of recognized breeds.

Stud Dog: A male dog used for breeding purposes.

Substance: Bone.

Tail Set: How the base of the tail sets on the rump.

Testicles: The male gonad, gland which produces spermatozoa.

Topline: The dog’s outline from just behind the withers to the tail set.

Trot: A rhythmic two-beat diagonal gait in which the feet at diagonally opposite ends of the body strike the ground together; i.e., right hind with the left front and left hind with the right front.

Tuck-Up: Characterized by markedly shallower body depth at the loin. Small waisted.

Type: The charasteristic qualities distinguishing a breed, the embodiment of a standard’s essentials.

Undershot: The front teeth (incisors) of the lower jaw overlapping or projecting beyond the front teeth of the upper jaw when the mouth is closed.

Whelping: The act of giving birth.

Whipped Tail: Carried out stiffly straight.

Winners Bitch: An award given at dog shows to the best female competing in regular classes.

Winners Dog: An award given at dog shows to the best male competing in regular classes.